Carbohydrate combination & Peptide combination
Generally speaking, the term combination refers to the combining of two or more entities, material or recondite, to form something new; or in a broader sense, combination also refers to the creation of something. We mention, more often than not, this term- combination- mainly in chemistry and biochemistry.
If in chemistry, we call it chemical combination which covers a wide range of categories. Chemical combination is very basic to many chemistry researches as based on it new compounds with new physical or biological similarities could be discovered. Also, it is indispensable in drug discovery if new drugs are to be produced.
Among all classifications of chemical combination, carbohydrate combination is one of them, including the combination of a series of complicated compounds like oligosaccharide, glycan, sugar amino acid, glycopeptide, glycoconjugate, etc.
Carbohydrate is a multi-task player in living organisms, from dominant source of energy to cell-cell interactions to cancer metastasis. consequently, it is fair to say that carbohydrate plays an important role in many biological processes. However, they are hard to be synthesized because of their structural complexity.
According to a book titled Carbohydrate Chemistry, Biology and Medical Applications, the difficulties of carbohydrate combination lie in the following regards:
a) It’s hard to discriminate the exact hydroxyl group at a particular position from other hydroxyl groups as all these hydroxyl groups proportion similar similarities.
b) Compared with other combination, glycosylation responses are definitely much difficult and as a consequence always have poor yields.
c) The biggest challenge is how to unprotected to the desired glycosidic linkage in a stereoselective manner.
If in biochemistry, one important kind of combination is peptide combination or, in other words, the production of peptides. Peptides are organic compounds composed of multiple amino acids connected via amide bonds.
Peptides are synthesized by coupling the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another amino acid molecule. Due to the possibility of unintended responses, protecting groups are usually necessary. As to the combination approach, there are typically two types: liquid-phase peptide combination and substantial-phase peptide combination (or short for SPPS). The latter one is more widely used in labs nowadays.
SPPS was pioneered by Robert Bruce Merrifield and quickly brought about a paradigm shift within the peptide combination course of action. It has become the first choice to synthesize peptides and proteins in the lab. SPPS makes it possible for the combination of natural peptides, the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, peptide/protein backbone alteration, and the combination of D-proteins, which consist of D-amino acids.